48. During the absorptive state, there is net synthesis of fat, glycogen, and protein, but this process is reversed during the post absorptive state. A post-absorptive state differs from an absorptive state. In this state glucose concentration in the blood declines and hence insulin levels are also decreased. When you eat, your body uses this food to fuel the cells. The effects of insulin in any given cell on membrane transport and on enzyme activity are mediated by the same receptor. 4. 68. Discuss the metabolic reactions that occur for glucose, amino acids, and lipids that predominate during the absorptive state. B) insulin levels are low. Cholesterol is metabolized to bile salts in the liver. The chemoreceptors for the reflexes that stimulate sympathetic activity and epinephrine secretion in response to hypoglycemia are located in the carotid and aortic bodies. In the absorptive state, most glucose that enters the liver is converted to. Your first task is to apply the mass balance equation to the maintenance of the glucose pool during the absorptive and postabsorptive states. Digestion begins the moment you put food into your mouth, as the food is broken down into its constituent parts to be absorbed through the intestine. The liver deaminates amino acids to keto acids which can be used in the krebs cycle to produce ATP, or can be converted to fat, or can be used by other body cells to create proteins. Absorptive state is the period in which the gastrointestinal tract is full and the anabolic processes exceed catabolism.The fuel used for this process is glucose.. Nutrient processing in the absorptive state. E. Both is required for cells to respond normally to hormones promoting gluconeogenesis and lipolysis and in high amounts increases gluconeogenesis and inhibits glucose uptake are correct. The primary integrator of body temperature control reflexes is the: A. Medullary cardiovascular center, E. Increased production of sweat for any given increase in environmental temperature and increased production of aldosterone by the adrenal cortex, D. Both is released by infection-fighting leukocytes and acts on the temperature-integrating centers of the hypothalamus are correct. Which of the following leads to increase in the ratio of LDL:HDL? Remnants are taken up by the liver. A. In the liver, glucose is converted to glycogen or fat, which store energy for future use. Receptors for the regulation of body temperature are heat and cold receptors in the skin, the CNS, and internal organs. 18. Most of the glucose stored after a high-carbohydrate meal is stored in the form of glycogen. Pituitary growth hormone has effects on protein metabolism similar to those of insulin, but its effects on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism are similar to those of elevated cortisol. 81. The liver which metabolizes many of the absorbed nutrients. Chylomicrons: formed in enterocytes during the absorptive phase only. View Test Prep - Exam 3 anatomy.docx from BIOL 2313 at University of Texas, El Paso. The metabolic events characteristic of the absorptive state can be attributed to the presence of large amounts of insulin in the blood, whereas the events of the postabsorptive state can be attributed largely to decreased insulin levels. The liver will store glucose or turn any excess glucose into body fat for storage. The reason high humidity plays such a significant role in increasing the discomfort felt on very hot days is that it decreases the cooling properties of conduction. Chylomicrons: formed in enterocytes during the absorptive phase only. Fever differs from other forms of hyperthermia in that it results from resetting the hypothalamic "thermostat" to a higher level. causes a decline in circulating ketone bodies. Fat is also stored in adipose tissue and glycogen in muscle tissue. 20. Primarily anabolic. PostabsorptiveState" "As"the"absorptive"state"comes"to"an"end,"enterocytes"stop"providing"glucose"to"the"hepatic" portal"circulation. The major metabolic effects of glucagon include: 22. 64. During fasting, ketones produced by the liver: B. When ketone bodies are present in the blood and urine in large amounts, it usually indicates increased metabolism of _____. Taken to the liver by portal blood. 11. Distinguish between the major characters of the absorptive and postabsorptive state in term of the conditions that establish the states and hormones that control the associated activities. The anabolic effects of insulin are accomplished by: 40. 26. Anorexia nervosa is excessive thinness usually caused by hyperthyroidism. These nutrients are used to meet the immediate energy needs of the body. Nutrients are absorbed from the GIT and stored, glucose is the primary energy source. Remnants are taken up by the liver or processed to LDL. The enzyme that converts chylomicron triacylglycerols into fatty acids is: 8. E. Converted to fat in the liver and utilized by most cells for energy. The Postabsorptive State. It is transported in chylomicrons to adipose tissue for storage or to other tissues as fuel. 14. Figure 24.5.1 – Absorptive State: During the absorptive state, the body digests food and absorbs the nutrients into cells. 86. With regard to fat metabolism, insulin increases: D. Both the activity of lipoprotein lipase and triacylglycerol synthesis by increasing glucose transport into adipose tissue cells. Insulin is a hormone that allows glucose to enter the cells and be used for energy. Generally, what happens in the absorptive phase? 71. During the absorptive state of metabolism, the primary energy source for most of the body's cells is ________, except for ________, which use ________ for energy. 59. 14. The absorptive state, or the fed state, occurs after a meal when your body is digesting the food and absorbing the nutrients (anabolism exceeds catabolism). of energy storage molecules and other processses characteristic of the absorptive state: Are used for protein synthesis in most body cells B. Absorptive state starts immediately after the ingestion of foods. Which of the following does not characterize the postabsorptive state? The postabsorptive state, or the fasting state, occurs when the food has been digested, absorbed, and stored. The excretion of glucose in the urine of a diabetic patient is a result of the inability of the kidney tubules to reabsorb glucose in the absence of insulin. You commonly fast overnight, but skipping meals during the day puts your body in the postabsorptive state as well. There is a substantial reduction in blood glucose concentration compared to the absorptive state. 78. Gluconeogenesis is stimulated by decreased levels of. What does the liver do during the absorptive phase? 74. 84. 23. Absorptive and Postabsorptive States The absorptive state is the time during and right after eating a meal. Glycogen is formed in the liver during the absorptive state. Transports cholesterol to peripheral tissues. 13. The absorptive state lasts for four hours, during and after each meal. anatomy-and-physiology; 0 Answers. 60. Low blood glucose level causes glucagon hormone to be secreted by alpha cells of pancreas. Insulin is a hormone that allows glucose to enter the cells and be used for energy. Which one of the following terms best describes the reaction in the Kerbs cycle in which a molecule When ketone bodies are present in the blood and urine in large amounts, it usually indicates increased metabolism of _____. The dietary components are utilized to replenish and augment glycogen and fat stores in the body. 3. 88. The absorptive state of metabolism lasts for about four hours, during and after each meal. The Post absorptive state is also known as fasting state. Excess is deaminated to ketoacids which are then used as fuel or converted to glucose/glycogen/fat. 42. 55. 5. D. It is converted to amino acids by liver cells. Quizlet 16 1. 50. In response to cold stimuli, human beings increase their rate of heat production primarily by increasing basal metabolic rate. The most important of the glucose-counter regulatory controls in normal circumstances is epinephrine. Start studying Nutrition test 2. The major means of increasing heat production in response to a cold environment is: C. Shivering thermogenesis and increased voluntary activity, 51. C) adipocytes release fatty acids to the circulation. Most of the energy used by the body during fasting is provided by gluconeogenesis. 60) During the absorptive state, A) skeletal muscle fibers release glucose. Can be used by the brain as an energy source, B. Epinephrine and glucagon stimulate glycogenolysis in liver cells. 31. 72. It is preferable to have a low LDL:HDL ratio because HDL operate to remove cholesterol from the peripheral tissues and carry it to the liver, which secretes it into the small intestine, 38. During this state, the body must rely initially on … 30. All other things being equal, a person who is hypothyroid will have a higher BMR than a person whose thyroid function is normal. For each state, you need to explain how each of the parts of the equation contribute to increases/decreases in the glucose pool, and the internal mechanisms that are employed to counteract those changes to restore balance. 29. 47. The source of the triacylglycerol used for synthesis of very low density lipoproteins in the liver is absorbed fatty acids and glycerol. In subjects with non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: E. Both insulin target tissues have fewer than normal or abnormal insulin receptors and increased exercise and caloric restriction generally improve their condition are correct, D. Both precursor of steroid hormones and component of plasma membranes are correct. Also during the absorptive state, chylomicrons, the product of fat digestion, are reconstituted to fat and stored in adipose tissue or, in a low carb environment, are used as an energy source. If the post-­‐ glucocorticoids absorptive state is long enough that adipose tissue reserves begin to become depleted, cathespins begin to break down contractile proteins in skeletal muscles for energy 4 (starvation mode) (“5” in Figure 2). 82. The constituent parts of these carbohydrates, fats, and proteins are tra… D) the liver … The liver will store … During this state glucose is the most important energy fuel. The digestion of carbohydrates begins in the mouth, whereas the digestion of proteins and fats begins in the stomach and small intestine. 16. In carnivores/omnivores, where are the nutrients taken? The absorptive state, or the fed state, occurs after a meal when your body is digesting the food and absorbing the nutrients (catabolism exceeds anabolism). Low blood glucose level causes glucagon hormone to be secreted by alpha cells of pancreas. Digestion begins the moment you put food into your mouth, as the food is broken down into its constituent parts to be absorbed through the intestine. Collects excess cholesterol from the tissues, also carries apoproteins for chylomicrons and VLDL. 58. 10. Fatty acids released by lipolysis of triacylglycerol in adipose tissue travel in the plasma as VLDL. The postabsorptive state, or the fasting state, occurs when the food has been digested, absorbed, and stored. absorptive state. Which of the following is most descriptive of a state of prolonged fasting? In the post absorptive state, maintenance of steady-state concentrations of plasma amino acids depends on release of amino acids from tissue protein.After a meal, dietary amino acids enter the plasma, replenish the tissues and are metabolized during fasting. After absorbing nutrients in the intestines, blood then travels to: A. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. 13. 10. The absorptive state, or the fed state, occurs after a meal when your body is digesting the food and absorbing the nutrients (anabolism exceeds catabolism). 19. They are degraded to free fatty acids(FFA) by lipoprotein lipase(LPL). The Post absorptive state is also known as fasting state. 60) During the absorptive state, A) skeletal muscle fibers release glucose. The Postabsorptive State. The Postabsorptive State. Takes up glucose and converts it glycerol and fatty acids. The absorptive state lasts for four hours, during and after each meal. As a result of binding to its receptor in skeletal muscle plasma membranes, insulin: D. Both stimulates glycogen synthase and inhibits the enzymes that mediate protein catabolism are correct. 63. The absorptive state of metabolism lasts for about four hours, during and after each meal. The factor that increases metabolic rate to the greatest extent is increased: 45. The primary fuel source for most cells in untreated insulin-dependent diabetes is alpha-keto acids. During feasting on a balanced carbohydrate, fat, and protein meal resting metabolic rate, body temperature and respiratory quotient all increase. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Plasma cholesterol concentration is not homeostatically regulated, but instead depends solely on the intake of cholesterol in the diet. a) Pyruvic acid b) Glycogen c) Amino acids d) Insulin e) Glucase. The digestion of carbohydrates begins in the mouth, whereas the digestion of proteins and fats begins in the stomach and small inte… During the absorptive state, glucose is the main fuel for most tissues of the body, which utilize it by glycolysis, the citric acid cycle and other pathways. Role of Organs in Amino Acid Metabolism. An absorptive state occurs during the period within four hours of food consumption. Cholesterol or its derivatives are directly involved in each of the following except: 37. Transport dietary triglycerides. macromolecules: Term. Are used for protein synthesis in the liver C. May be converted to fat or glucose in the liver D. Both are used for protein synthesis in most body cells and … When total-body energy balance is positive in an adult, energy is being stored as fat. Throughout this state, digested food is converted into sugar or glucose. Figure 24.21 Absorptive State During the absorptive state, the body digests food and absorbs the nutrients. Excess absorbed glucose is initially converted to triacylglycerides and very low density lipoprotein by: 9. 12. 46. absorptive state. 54. VLDL: formed in the liver continuously, take endogenous TG to adipose/periphery. Which event occurs during exercise but not during fasting? asked Sep 25, 2015 in Anatomy & Physiology by giugiu. Increased; decreased; decreased; increased, D. Hypoglycemia and high plasma concentration of epinephrine. 70. absorptive state. Carbs/proteins are taken to the portal vein and then to the liver. Which of the following is not a fate of absorbed glucose? Promoting glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in the liver. FFAs are transported into cells. The postabsorptive state, or the fasting state, occurs when the food has been digested, absorbed, and stored. Absorptive and Postabsorptive States The absorptive state is the time during and right after eating a meal. Stomach and small amounts are used to provide ATP would have to fatty! 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