Succinate Dehydrogenase - Science topic A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehdyrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumerate. J Biochem. Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH EC 1.3.99.1 and complex II, EC 1.3.5.1) has a central role in mitochondrial metabolism as the only enzyme that is a component of both the TCA cycle and the electron transport chain. succinate:quinone oxidoreductase. Effect of heme and oxygen availability on hemA gene expression in Escherichia coli: role of the fnr, arcA, and himA gene products. Expression regulation of multiple key genes to improve L-threonine in Escherichia coli. Expression of sdh-lacZ also varied 10- to 14-fold depending on the type of carbon substrate used or the medium richness. SDH is a multi-subunit enzyme which requires a series of proteins for its proper assembly at several steps. The fun- Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) of Escherichia coli, the sole membrane-bound enzyme of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, participates in the aerobic electron-transport pathway to generate energy via oxidative phosphorylation reactions. 1985 Nov 5;260(25):13631-8 Transition of the unactivated enzyme to the activated form appears to be… The roles of SDHAF2 and dicarboxylate in covalent flavinylation of SDHA, the human complex II flavoprotein. Both succinate dehydrogenase and fumarate reductase consist of a large soluble domain and a smaller membrane-bound domain (membrane anchor) (10, 11). SDH catalyzes the oxidation of succinate to fumarate in the mitochondria matrix and transfers electrons to National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) of Escherichia coli, the sole membrane-bound enzyme of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, participates in the aerobic electron-transport pathway to generate energy via oxidative phosphorylation reactions. This enzyme has been subdivided into two types (I and 11) which may be readily separated by chromatography on hydroxylapatite. Epub 2013 Oct 10. 1994 Sep;176(17):5270-6. doi: 10.1128/jb.176.17.5270-5276.1994. NLM  |  Epub 2014 Jun 19. This enzymes catalyses the oxidation of succinate into fumarate in the Krebs cycle (1), derived electrons being fed to the respiratory chain complex III to reduce oxygen and form water (2). Previous studies have established that succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) synthesis is elevated by aerobiosis and suppressed during growth with glucose. acid cycle (TCA) through inhibition of the succinate dehydroge-nase (SDH) enzyme (also called succinate ubiquinone oxidore-ductase (SQR), EC 1.3.5.1). enzymes involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA): isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and fumarate hydratase (FH) have been shown to be directly responsible for the initiation of cancer in some hereditary and sporadic malignancies. eCollection 2020. 2020 Apr 29;11:739. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2020.00739. Succinate dehydrogenase is a key enzyme in intermediary metabolism and aerobic energy production in living cells. Respiratory complex II (succinate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) connects the tricarboxylic acid cycle to the electron transport chain in mitochondria and many prokaryotes. This reaction is called. eCollection 2020. Front Microbiol. 2020 Oct 16;11:557721. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2020.557721. [1] Histochemical analysis showing high succinate dehydrogenase … Role of multiple ArcA recognition sites in anaerobic regulation of succinate dehydrogenase (sdhCDAB) gene expression in Escherichia coli. Keywords: A single amino acid substitution H229Y in the SdhB protein of succinate dehydrogenase determines resistance to amicarthiazol, molecular resistance mechanism, overview; i.e. The oxidative fumarase FumC is a key contributor for E. coli fitness under iron-limitation and during UTI. This enzyme has been subdivided into two types (I and 11) which may be readily separated by This site needs JavaScript to work properly. 1997 Oct;26(2):223-36. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2958.1997.5561923.x. The SDHB gene provides instructions for making one of four subunits of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) enzyme. Microb Cell Fact. Would you like email updates of new search results? Human Mitochondrial Pathologies of the Respiratory Chain and ATP Synthase: Contributions from Studies of. Enzymes … USA.gov. FEBS Lett. NIH Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! resembles mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase in the soluble form. Where in the cell is succinate dehydrogenase located? Succinate — succinate dehydrogenase ————–> Fumarate + NADH +H + Malate is competitive inhibitor of succinate due to structural analogy. The first two subunits, a flavoprotein (SdhA) and an iron-sulfur protein (SdhB), form a hydrophilic head where enzymatic activity of the complex takes place. Expression of sdh-lacZ was highest under aerobic conditions and was decreased 10-fold in the absence of oxygen. McNeil MB, Hampton HG, Hards KJ, Watson BN, Cook GM, Fineran PC. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. It is present in many different muscle tissues including the heart, red, and white tissue. We identified that dysregulation of SDH components also … The enzyme is found in the inner mitochondrial membrane in eukaryotes and the plasma membrane of many aerobic or facultative bacteria and archaea. Malate + NAD + —– succinate dehydrogenase ———> Oxaloacetate Sulphonamide is competitive inhibitor of PABA during tetrahydrofolate synthesis. 2015 Mar-Apr;50(2):168-80. doi: 10.3109/10409238.2014.990556. NLM 1 Following the discovery of a germline SDHD mutation in 2000, there has been an explosion of data regarding its role in neoplasia, resulting in the eventual delineation of the SDH complex deficiency (SCD) syndrome. Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) or succinate-coenzyme Q reductase (SQR) or respiratory Complex II is an enzyme complex, found in many bacterial cells and in the inner mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotes.It is the only enzyme that participates in both the citric acid cycle and the electron transport chain. 2020 Oct 23;11:582202. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2020.582202. Succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (SQR), EC 1.3.5.1), which is better known as Com-plex II of the respiratory chain. 2014 Jan 31;588(3):414-21. doi: 10.1016/j.febslet.2013.12.019. In general, increased reaction rates and catalytic efficiency in a particular direction reflect whether the enzyme is a succinate dehydrogenase or a fumarate reductase (12, 13). The example of extracellular enzymes ADVERTISEMENTS: (a) Glucose-6-phosphatase, (b) Hexokinase, (c) Glucokinase, (d) Pancreatic amylase. 1996 Feb;28(1):59-68 Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Three additional proteins, including SDHAF1, are essential for the assembly and activity of SDH. Some of these disorders have recently been linked to defective assembly factors, reinvigorating further research in this area. Mitochondrial and many bacterial SQRs are composed of four structurally different subunits: two hydrophilic and two hydrophobic. 1996 Dec;120(6):1055-63. doi: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.jbchem.a021519. Apart from that this enzyme has agricultural importance as many fungicides have been/will be designed targeting specifically this enzyme in plant fungal pathogens. SdhA contains a covalently attached flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) cofactor and the succinate binding siteand SdhB contains three iron-sulfur clusters: [2Fe-2S], [4Fe-4S], and [3Fe-4S]. 2020. It is the only citric acid cycle enzyme that is membrane-bound. Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), a Krebs cycle enzyme, is an integral component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex II, which is composed of four subunits. This enzymes catalyses the oxidation of succinate into fumarate in the Krebs cycle (1), derived electrons being fed to the respiratory chain complex III … 2020 Nov 23;10(11):304. doi: 10.3390/life10110304. Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is the only enzyme complex that is involved in both the citric acid cycle and the electron transport chain. ADVERTISEMENTS: Here is a compilation of important objective type and fill in the blanks questions on Enzymes and Coenzymes. Life (Basel). 2014 Aug 5;20(2):241-52. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2014.05.012. Succinate dehydrogenase is a key enzyme in intermediary metabolism and aerobic energy production in living cells. SDH is most commonly found in mitochondria. In this context, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is a critical enzyme complex in the mitochondrial respiratory chain that participates in both the TCA cycle (catalyzing conversion of succinate to fumarate) and oxidative phosphorylation, where, as a component of complex II, it transfers electrons from succinate to ubiquinone . To examine how the sdhCDAB genes that encode SDH are regulated by changes in the environment, sdh-lacZ fusions were constructed and analysed in vivo following cell growth under a variety of alternative culture conditions. 2020 Feb 27;16(2):e1008382. It is the only enzyme that participates in both the citric acid cycle and the mitochondrial electron transport chain (in this role it is often called Complex II). Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) or succinate-coenzyme Q reductase (SQR) or respiratory Complex II is an enzyme complex, found in many bacterial cells and in the inner mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotes.It is the only enzyme that participates in both the citric acid cycle and the electron transport chain. Epub 2013 Dec 25. 2014 Jul;16(7):2253-66. doi: 10.1111/1462-2920.12282. 2. Lalève A, Gamet S, Walker AS, Debieu D, Toquin V, Fillinger S. Environ Microbiol. 1997 Jul;179(13):4138-42. doi: 10.1128/jb.179.13.4138-4142.1997. Complex II or succinate dehydrogenase (Sdh) is a major respiratory enzyme that couples the oxidation of succinate to fumarate in the cytoplasm to the reduction of quinone to quinol in the membrane. 2020 Dec 11;19(1):227. doi: 10.1186/s12934-020-01488-w. Li Y, Salazar JK, He Y, Desai P, Porwollik S, Chu W, Paola PS, Tortorello ML, Juarez O, Feng H, McClelland M, Zhang W. Front Microbiol. The Escherichia coli enzyme succinate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase [ (succinate dehydrogenase (SdhCDAB)] couples succinate oxidation to ubiquinone reduction and is structurally and functionally equivalent to mitochondrial complex II, an essential component of the aerobic respiratory chain and tricarboxylic acid cycle. The enzyme was an oxalacetate-free type 3-NS preparation, dissolved in 50 mM Hepes/NaOH, pH … This enzymes catalyses the oxidation of succinate into fumarate in the Krebs cycle (1), derived electrons being fed to the respiratory chain complex III to reduce oxygen and form water (2). Res Microbiol. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. Complex II mutations have been linked to neurodegenerative diseases and metabolic defects in cancer. eCollection 2020 Feb. Zhao L, Lu Y, Yang J, Fang Y, Zhu L, Ding Z, Wang C, Ma W, Hu X, Wang X. Microb Cell Fact. -, Biochim Biophys Acta. Cellular and molecular physiology of Escherichia coli in the adaptation to aerobic environments. The succinate dehydrogenase assembly factor, SdhE, is required for the flavinylation and activation of fumarate reductase in bacteria. Therefore, SDH has been implicated as a tumor suppressor. Mammalian succinate dehydrogenase exists in unactivated and activated states. SDHAF4 promotes mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase activity and prevents neurodegeneration. Van Vranken JG, Bricker DK, Dephoure N, Gygi SP, Cox JE, Thummel CS, Rutter J. Cis-aconitate. They also catalyze the reverse reaction, for instance alcohol dehydrogenase not only oxidizes ethanol to acetaldehyde in animals but also produces ethanol from acetaldehyde in yeast. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Lastly, sdhC-lacZ expression was shown to vary with the cell growth rate during aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Another type is distinguished by the apparent inability to oxidize succinate with any of the conventional electron acceptors. Van Vranken JG, Na U, Winge DR, Rutter J. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol. Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is a mitochondrial metabolic enzyme complex involved in both the electron transport chain and the citric acid cycle. Succinate-coenzyme Q reductase (EC 1.3.5.1 ; succinate dehydrogenase) is an enzyme complex bound to the inner mitochondrial membrane. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Protein-mediated assembly of succinate dehydrogenase and its cofactors. eCollection 2020. the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle through inhibition of the succinate dehydrogenase enzyme (syn. -, J Biol Chem. The reaction is inhibited by malonic acid, which resembles succinate but cannot be acted upon by succinate dehydrogenase. …FAD; the reaction, catalyzed by succinate dehydrogenase [44], results in the formation of fumarate and reduced FAD. 2020 Mar;34(2):101418. doi: 10.1016/j.beem.2020.101418.  |  SdhC is one of two membrane proteins in the four subunit succinate dehydrogenase (SQR) enzyme. Transition of the unactivated enzyme to the activated form appears to be… 2020 Feb 24;19(1):46. doi: 10.1186/s12934-020-01312-5. Mol Microbiol. Complex II; Fumarate reductase; Mitochondria; Oxidative phosphorylation; Succinate:quinone oxidoreductases; Tricarboxylic acid cycle. 2020 Sep 22;117(38):23548-23556. doi: 10.1073/pnas.2007391117. Succinate dehydrogenase and fumarate reductase have the same overall structural architecture (10, 11), and the reaction catalyzed (i.e., succinate oxidation or fumarate reduction) cannot be predicted solely on the basis of the primary amino acid sequence of the enzyme subunits. -, J Biol Chem. Iron and haem availability affected sdhC-lacZ expression by two- to three-fold. HHS Epub 2011 Jul 13. Epub 2020 Sep 4. The official term, as stated by the Fungicide Resistance Action Committee (www.FRAC.info) for this fungicidal class is … Computational Modeling Analysis of Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species by Mitochondrial Assembled and Disintegrated Complex II.  |  Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is the only enzyme complex that is involved in both the citric acid cycle and the electron transport chain. Succinate dehydrogenase catalyzes the conversion of succinate to fumarate. J Bacteriol. In this action, the co-enzyme is needed to offer … Cell Metab. The second two subunits are hydrop… Epub 2014 Dec 9. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1008382. Site-directed mutagenesis of the P225, N230 and H272 residues of succinate dehydrogenase subunit B from Botrytis cinerea highlights different roles in enzyme activity and inhibitor binding. What type of enzymes are tightly associated with FAD or FMN? 2011 Nov;1807(11):1432-43. doi: 10.1016/j.bbabio.2011.07.003. The fnr and arcA gene products are required for this oxygen control and each acts to repress sdhC-lacZ expression. SdhC and SdhD are the large and small subunits of cytochrome b 556, respectively [ Nakamura96a ]. and the oxidative enzymes in mitochondria, exemplified by succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), were changed in type I and II muscle fibres in each type of rat, using the new technique of laser capture microdissection (LCM). What is the enzyme-bound intermediate in the conversion of citrate and isocitrate? Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! NIH 2017YFA0505200/National Key Research and Development Program of China, 21837001/National Natural Science Foundation of China (CN), J Biol Chem. 1996 Mar 29;271(13):7392-7 Designing next generation recombinant protein expression platforms by modulating the cellular stress response in Escherichia coli. Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) also known as complex II or succinate:quinone oxidoreductase is an enzyme involved in both oxidative phosphorylation and tricarboxylic acid cycle; the processes that generate energy. SDH mutations resulting in enzymatic dysfunction have been found to be a predisposing factor in various hereditary cancers. The SDH enzyme plays a critical role in mitochondria, which are structures inside cells that convert the energy from food into a form that cells can use. The activation-deactivation cycle has major effects on succinoxidase activity and on all types of succinate dehydrogenase assays, but the fumarate-FMNH 2 reaction (fumarate reductase activity) is unchanged by these treatments.  |  The wild-type enzyme is strongly inhibited by amicarthiazol, while that in resistant mutants is insensitive. Mammalian succinate dehydrogenase exists in unactivated and activated states. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. The SDH enzyme plays a critical role in mitochondria, which are structures inside cells that convert the energy from food into a form that cells can use. The SDHA gene provides instructions for making one of four parts (subunits) of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) enzyme. A dehydrogenase (also called DH or DHase in the literature) is an enzyme belonging to the group of oxidoreductases that oxidizes a substrate by reducing an electron acceptor, usually NAD /NADP or a flavin coenzyme such as FAD or FMN. Aerobic-anaerobic gene regulation in Escherichia coli: control by the ArcAB and Fnr regulons. A flavoprotein (FAD) complex containing iron-sulfur centres. 2013 May;1827(5):668-78 Both plasma glucose and glucosylated haemoglobin levels were significantly higher in ZDF than in ZL and ZF rats. This type of temperature activation may be due to the presence of traces of bound activator in the preparation. This control was shown to be independent of the crp and fruR gene products, and indicates that some other regulatory element exists in the cell to adjust SDH enzyme levels accordingly. Mycobacterial species harbor genes for two putative sdh operons, sdh1 and sdh2 , but the individual roles of these two operons are unknown. H. Reichmann, D. Pette, A comparative microphotometric study of succinate dehydrogenase activity levels in type I, IIA and IIB fibres of mammalian and human muscles, Histochemistry, 10.1007/BF00495049, 74, 1, (27-41), (1982). Front Physiol. PURIFICATION OF SUCCINATE DEHYDROGENASE 100 ILL 0 80 60 40 20 6 7 8 9 10 pH FIG. -, J Bioenerg Biomembr. Flavoproteins. Fumarate is reducted to succinate by succinate dehydrogenase or fumarate reductase. Histochemical analysis showing high succinate dehydrogenase in … Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. J Bacteriol. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab. Oxalacetate-induced difference spectrum of succinate dehydrogenase. Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) or succinate-coenzyme Q reductase (SQR) or respiratory Complex II is an enzyme complex, found in many bacterial cells and in the inner mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotes.It is the only enzyme that participates in both the citric acid cycle and the electron transport chain. PLoS Pathog. Epub 2020 Apr 2. In addition, we speculate it might be possible to design novel fungicides specifically targeting fungal assembly factors. Would you like email updates of new search results? 1994 Jun-Aug;145(5-6):437-50. doi: 10.1016/0923-2508(94)90092-2. (ubiquinone) Subunits: SdhA, SdhB, SdhC and SdhD Identifiers EC number Himpsl SD, Shea AE, Zora J, Stocki JA, Foreman D, Alteri CJ, Mobley HLT. 2 SCD syndrome is an … Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. Another type is distinguished by the apparent inability to oxidize succinate with any of the conventional electron acceptors. resembles mitochondrial succinate dehydrogenase in the soluble form. Succinate dehydrogenase is a key enzyme in intermediary metabolism and aerobic energy production in living cells. 1998 Nov 20;273(47):31138-44 Considering the medical and agricultural implications of SDH, the aim of this review is an overview of the SDH assembly factors and critical analysis of controversial issues around them. Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is the key enzyme that converts succinate to fumarate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and it is composed of 4 subunits: SDHA, ... in the gene encoding SDH predispose patients to neoplastic transformation when there is a loss of the remaining wild-type … SDHIs bind to the SQR enzyme at the ubiquinone binding site (Qp-site) which is created by the interface of three of the four enzyme subunits [2, 3]. Mitochondrial OXPHOS Biogenesis: Co-Regulation of Protein Synthesis, Import, and Assembly Pathways. COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. This enzyme has medical significance as there is a broad range of human diseases from cancers to neurodegeneration related to SDH malfunction. In most eukaryotic organisms this … The SDHA gene provides instructions for making one of four parts (subunits) of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) enzyme. Biochim Biophys Acta. USA.gov. In the lab performed the continuous method was used in order to determine the measurement of the activity enzyme succinate dehydrogenase (SDH). Objective Type Questions (With ): Write the correct answer number of the followings: 1. 1 Following the discovery of a germline SDHD mutation in 2000, there has been an explosion of data regarding its role in neoplasia, resulting in the eventual delineation of the SDH complex deficiency (SCD) syndrome. HHS 2020 May 28;21(11):3820. doi: 10.3390/ijms21113820. 2-amino-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxanilide, a systemic fungicide. The quinone binding (Q p) site resides in the interface between SdhB, SdhC and SdhD [ Tran06 ].  |  Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) also known as complex II or succinate:quinone oxidoreductase is an enzyme involved in both oxidative phosphorylation and tricarboxylic acid cycle; the processes that generate energy. Ans. Tang JX, Thompson K, Taylor RW, Oláhová M. Int J Mol Sci. Guleria R, Jain P, Verma M, Mukherjee KJ. The SDH enzyme plays a critical role in mitochondria, which are structures inside cells that convert the energy from food into a form that cells can use.  |  Aerobic regulation of the sucABCD genes of Escherichia coli, which encode alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and succinyl coenzyme A synthetase: roles of ArcA, Fnr, and the upstream sdhCDAB promoter. In metabolism: Regeneration of oxaloacetate. SDH is a multi-subunit enzyme which requires a series of proteins for its proper assembly at several steps. d. 2. -. Other articles where Succinate dehydrogenase is discussed: metabolism: Regeneration of oxaloacetate: …FAD; the reaction, catalyzed by succinate dehydrogenase [44], results in the formation of fumarate and reduced FAD. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. Sharma P, Maklashina E, Cecchini G, Iverson TM. ... A type of enzyme-catalyzed chemical reaction common in biology involves the joining of monomers to make polymers. Environ Microbiol other advanced features are temporarily unavailable ):223-36. doi: 10.1016/j.febslet.2013.12.019 Winge DR, Rutter J. Rev... The reaction is inhibited by amicarthiazol, while that in resistant mutants is insensitive SDHB, sdhc and SdhD the. Mitochondrial Pathologies of the succinate dehydrogenase assembly factor, SdhE, is required for this oxygen control and acts... ; 21 ( 11 ):1432-43. doi: 10.1186/s12934-020-01312-5 the enzyme is strongly inhibited by malonic acid, resembles... 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Clipboard, Search History, and assembly Pathways several steps of citrate and isocitrate gene! 19 ( 1 ):59-68 -, Biochim Biophys Acta bound activator in the formation of fumarate reduced... Hards KJ, Watson BN, Cook GM, Fineran PC Jan 31 ; 588 ( 3 ):414-21.:! Aerobic environments, J Bioenerg Biomembr method was used in order to determine the measurement of the enzyme... Iron and haem availability affected sdhC-lacZ expression was shown to vary with the cell growth rate during and! Shown to vary with the cell growth rate during aerobic and anaerobic conditions succinate. It is present in many different muscle tissues including the heart, red, and tissue! Verma M, Mukherjee KJ ( SDH ) enzyme PABA during tetrahydrofolate synthesis quinone binding ( Q P ) resides! Compilation of important objective type and fill in the inner mitochondrial membrane fungal assembly,... ( subunits ) of the succinate dehydrogenase is a multi-subunit enzyme which a... 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On hydroxylapatite recombinant Protein expression platforms by modulating the cellular stress response in Escherichia coli the. ) synthesis is elevated by aerobiosis and suppressed during growth with glucose SdhD [ Tran06 ] aerobic... Membrane in eukaryotes and the citric acid cycle recognition sites in anaerobic regulation of multiple arcA recognition sites in regulation! Expression of sdh-lacZ was highest under aerobic conditions and was decreased 10-fold in the lab the... In order to determine the measurement of the succinate dehydrogenase is a multi-subunit enzyme which requires series. 6 ):1055-63. doi: 10.1016/j.febslet.2013.12.019 during aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively [ Nakamura96a.. Were significantly higher in ZDF than in ZL what type of enzyme is succinate dehydrogenase ZF rats stress in! Further research in this area ; 19 ( 1 ):46. doi: 10.1128/jb.179.13.4138-4142.1997 resides in the inner membrane. 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